Kun Bu –– Laminaria japonica

Pinyin: Kun Bu

Latin: Thallus Laminaria

Introduction
Thallus Laminaria is the dried thalline of Laminaria japonica Aresch. (Fam.Laminariaceae) or EckIonia kurome Okam. (Fam. Alariaceae). The drug is collected in summer and autumn, and dried in the sun.

Western medical
kun bu is indicated in the treatment of hyperlipemia, acute and chronic pharyngitis, and cystic hyperplasia of the breast, etc..

Eastern medical
Pattern: Softens the Heardness, dissolves lumps, resolves Phlegm and induces diuresis.
Properties: Salty, cold.
Channels entered: Liver, Stomach and Kidney.

Chemical constituents
kun bu is rich in iodine. It also contains alginic acid, algin, PS, laminarin and laminine, etc..

Pharmacological actions
•Effects on the thyroid gland
kun bu could correct the hypofunction of thyroid gland due to lack of iodine, and relieve the symptoms of hyperthyroidism by inhibiting the metabolic rate which could be used during the preoperative preparation.
•Effects on the blood fat
kun bu could significantly lower blood cholesterol and triglyceride, simultaneously increase the level of HDL-C and its subtype HDL2-C, and lower the whole blood viscosity and fibrinogen.
•Anti-tumor effect
1. The effect of dietary or intraperitoneally injected seaweed preparations on the growth of sarcoma-180 cells subcutaneously implanted into mice.
Sixteen preparations from 9 edible seaweeds including powdered weed (P), hot-water extract (E), the non-dialyzable fraction (I) of E and the residue (R) of hot-water extraction were incorporated into a basic diet, and they were given to mice implanted with Sarcoma-180 cells s.c., for 5 weeks. Consequently, diets with 6 preparations, E of Laminaria angustata, P and E of Laminaria angustata var. longissima, and P, E and R of Laminaria japonica var. ochotensis, were found to be effective, with inhibition ratios ranging from 70.3% to 83.6%. Intraperitoneal injection of 10 preparations from 6 edible seaweeds, including the above 3 weeds, were also noted to be effective in the same test system, with inhibition ratios ranging from 61.9% to 95.2%.
––Yamamoto I, Maruyama H, Takahashi M, Komiyama K. Cancer Lett. 1986 Feb;30(2):125-31. 
2. The effect of dietary seaweeds on 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats.
Six groups of female rats were fed diets containing 2% of one of six powdered seaweeds for 152 days and a basic diet for 59 or 60 successive days, and controls were fed the basic diet for the whole experimental period. The 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene was given to all rats intragastrically (20 mg/kg X 1), 27 days after the start of feeding. Diets with 3 weeds, Porphyra tenera (PT), Laminaria religiosa (LR) and L. japonica var. ochotensis (LO), showed an inhibitory effect on mammary tumorigenesis. Tumor incidences were 35% (7/20), 35% (7/20) and 50% (9/18), respectively, whereas that in the control group was 69% (20/29). There was a significant delay in the time to first palpable tumor in LR-fed and PT-fed rats (P less than 0.01). As for the tumor weight per rat in each group, it was significantly lower in the LR-fed group with a weight of 1.6 g, as compared with that of 16.3 g in the control group (P less than 0.02).
––Yamamoto I, Maruyama H, Moriguchi M. Cancer Lett. 1987 May;35(2):109-18. 
3. The effect of adding Laminaria japonica to food on the long-term effects when combined with radiation injury
Irradiation of rats by 131I (10 Gy) incorporated in the thyroid and by 137Cs external source (6 Gy) was made. Part of animals received a ration with Laminaria that reduced a rise in frequency of leukemia, other malignant tumors and increased latent period of tumor formation.
––Knizhnikov VA, Komleva VA, Shandala NK, Voronova IuG, Rekhina NI. Gig Sanit. 1993 Dec;(12):37-9. 
4. Effect of okam on inflammation and remodeling of airway of mice with ovalbumin induced asthma.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the effect of okam on inflammation and remodeling of airway in mice with ovalbumin (OVA) induced asthma. Methods Thirty-two mice of Kunming strain were divided into four groups randomly: model group, glucocorticoid inhalation group, okam group and control group, with 8 mice in each group. The asthmatic mice model was reproduced by combined injection and aerosol inhalation of OVA. The mice in model group received normal saline (0.3 ml) gavage daily. The mice in glucocorticoid inhalation group received budesonide (0.4 ml, 200mg) and normal saline (3.6 ml) inhalation. The mice in okam group were gavaged with okam daily (50 mg/kg). The controls were given normal saline instead of OVA sensitization. All mice were sacrificed 42 days later, followed by lavage of tracheo-bronchial tree of the right lung, and the right lung was saved for pathological examination. The total cell number and differentiation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted under microscope. The expression of interferon-g (IFN-g), interleukin-4 (IL-4) in BALF were assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent asay (ELISA). The histological changes in the bronchi and alveoli were evaluated after hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) as well as the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with the model group, the total cell count and IL-4 level in BALF, and the score of pathological changes in the broncho-alveolar tissue in okam group or glucocorticoid inhalation group were lower significantly, and the IFN-γ level elevated markedly (all P<0.01). The MMP-9, TIMP-1 expression in glucocorticoid inhalation group and the TIMP-1 expression in okam group were decreased greatly (P<0.05 or P<0. 01). All of above indexes showed marked differences between control group and okam group (P<0. 05 or P<0.01). There were significant changes in the total cell count, IFN-γ, pathological changes, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 between the glucocorticoid inhalation group and the okam group (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). Conclusion Okam may alleviate inflammation of the bronchia and degrade the development of airway remodeling to some degree.
––Qu Zhenghai, Xie Ning, Che Shuyu, Lin rongjun, Hu Sujuan. Zhong Guo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. Issue 4, 2009, Pages 230-233.
5. Sensitization of LAMS on the chemotherapy for human gastric cancer cells.
Objective: To study the sensitization effect of laminarin sulphate(LAMS) on the chemotherapy for gastric cancer cells. Methods:RT-PCR and Immunohistochemical stainings were used to determine the change of Bcl-2 protein treated with LAMS.MTT assay was used to examine the ID50 and the effective time of gastric cancer cells treated with 5-Fu,MTX,MMC,EPI,CTX or combined with LAMS.Results:The expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein decreased in the gastric cancer cells treated with LAMS.The sensitivity of human gastric cancer cells to 5-Fu, MTX, MMC, EPI, CTX increased and their effective time were extended. Conclusion: The sensitivity of human gastric cancers to 5-Fu, MTX, MMC, EPI, CTX can be enhanced by LAMS.
––Wu Xiaojian, Dong Pujiang. Ji Guang Za Zhi. Vol. 29, Issue 4, 2008, Pages 88, 09.
6. Objective To explore the effect of Okam on airway inflammation in asthmatic mouse. Methods Thirty - two SPF grade Kunming Strain mice were randomly divided into positive control group, glucocorticoid inhalation group, Okam group and negative control group with 8 mice in each group. The mice were sensitized and repeatedly challenged with ovalbumin(OVA) to establish the models of chronic asthma. The glucocorticoid group were given Budesonide(200 μg) and saline everyday by inhalation,the Okam group were given 50 mg/kg Okam by gavage, and the positive group had saline at the same time, the negative control group received saline at all stages. The inflammation of the lung tissue were scored underwent HE staining. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell count and differential were studied, and interferon -g ( IFN-g), interleukin-4 (IL-4) in BALF were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: There were no inflammatory cell infiltrate of bronchiole in the negative control group. Inflammatory infiltration of lung tissue were obvious in the positive control group. Inflammatory infiltration of lung tissue lightened obviously in the Budesonide and Okam groups. The total cell number, Eosinophils (EOS) and IL- 4 level in B ALF, and the score of the lung tissue in Okam group were all markedly lower than those in positive control group (t =5.942,7.089,7.078 Pa <0.01 ) ,and the IFN-g, increased greatly (t =6.171 P<0.01), and the IFN-g decreased (t=4.116 P<0.01 ). Compared with the negative control group, the total cell number, EOS, and IL-4 level in BALF were all significantly increased (t=2.150, 3.977, 2.593 Pa<0.05), and the IFN-g, significantly decreased (t=4.116 P<0.01). Compared with the Bude- sonide group ,the total cell number and EOS increased greatly (t=4.984, 6.195 Pa<0.01 ), IL- 4 changed fewly (t =1.424 P>0.05 ), IFN-%, lower (t = 4.275 P<0.01 ), and the score of the lung tissue increased (P<0.01). Conclusions Okam may inhibit the airway inflammation of asthmatic mice, and might be an ancillary drug for asthma.
––Qu Zhenghai, Xie Ning, Liu Xiaomei, Lin Rongjun. Effect of Okam on Airway Inflammation in Asthmatic Mouse. Shi Yong Er Ke Lin Chuang Za Zhi. Issue 4, Vol. 23, 2008, Pages 274-276.
7. Effect of Thallus Laminariae PE on multidrug resistance of human endometrial cancer cell line B-MD-C1 ( ADR^+/+ ) in vitro.
AIM: To study the multidrug resistance (MDR)- reversing effect of Chinese drug Thallus Larninariae PE ( TLPE ) on human endometrial cancer cell line B-MD-C1 (ADR^+/+) in vitro and its underlying mechanism. METHODS: The expressions of PKC-α and GST-π at the level of protein in B-MD-C1 cell treated with different doses of TLPE were analyzed by flow cytometry. The cell cycle and apoptosis rate of B-MD-C1 (ADR+/+) cells treated by TLPE were detected. Their morphological changes were observed by Gimsa staining methods. Colorimetry was used to detect the changes of ATPase on B-MD-C1 (ADR^+/+) cells treated by TLPE. RESULTS: After interfered by TLPE (70-300mg/L), the expressions of PKC-a and GST-p in cells were decreased significantly (P<0.01). TLPE could block cell cycle at S period, but it did not obviously induce cell apoptosis. There was no significant change in the expression of ATPase on TLPE- treated cells. CONCLUSION: TLPE can reverse MDR of B-MD-C1 (ADR^+/+ ) cell, and the mechanism may be related to the decreasing expressions of PKC-a and GST-p in cells.
––Li Qiaomin, Lian Yishui, Zhang Jing, Shan Baoen,Zhao Ruinian. Di Si Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. Vol. 29, Issue 5, 2008, Pages 474-476.
•Effects on asthma and cough
Crude extract of hai dai could calm asthma in guinea pigs with asthma induced by histamine. It also had certain anti-tussive effect on rats with cough induced by SO2 and cats with cough induced by electric stimulation to superior laryngeal nerve.
•Effects on the blood pressure
Intravenous injection of laminine could temporarily lower the blood pressure in anaesthetized rabbits. It had slight excitotary effect on isolated rabbit hearts and could inhibit isolated rabbit intestines.

Clinical Studies
•Hyperlipemia
Laminarin was made into capsule of 300mg each, 60 days as a course of treatment. It could significantly lower the serum cholesterol and triglyceride. It could also increaset the ratio of HDL/LDL.
•Acute and chronic pharyngitis
hai di 10g, yan suan mei 3 pieces and rock cancy 30g mixed with 250ml water were stewed and taken in three times after meals. 168 cases of acute pharyngitis were treated with this method for 1~3 days and all were cured. Among 282 treated cases with chornic pharyngitis, after 10~20 days’ treatment, 182 were markedly effective and 80 improved.
•Cystic hyperplasia of the breat
ban zhi lian, bai hua she she cao, xia ku cao, 30g each; mu li, hai zao, e zhu, 12g each; kun bu, zhi ke, ju he, shan ci gu, dan pi, 9g each; chi shao, 6g. 20 days as a course of treatment.

 

Chang Chun Hua –– Catharanthus roseus

Pinyin: Chang Chun Hua

Latin: Herba Catharanthi rosei

Introduction
Herba Catharanthis rosei is the whole plant of Catharanthus roseus (Fam. Apocynaceae).

Western medical
The herb was used to treat cancer, hypertension, nephritic syndrome, thrombopenic purpura and bullous skin diseases, etc..

Eastern medical
Pattern: Anti-cancer, lowers Blood pressure.
Properties: Slightly bitter, cool, toxic.
Channels entered: Liver and Kidney.

Chemical constituents
More than 70 kinds of alkaloids has been isolated from the root, stem, leaf and seed of chang chun hua. The anti-cancer ingredients include Vinblastine (VLB), Vincristine (VCR), Leurosine (VLR), Vincadioline and Leurosidine and Catharanthine, etc..

Pharmacological actions
•Anti-cancer effect
The herb contains more than 70 alkaloids, including vinblastine, vincristine, vinrosidine. The Vinca alkaloids are very effective against leukemia. Clinical trials have shown high remission rates in patients with acute lymphatic and chronic granulocytic leukemia.
•Blood pressure lowering effect
Intravenous injection of alkaloids of chang chun hua to anaesthetized cats, dogs or rabbits could significantly lower the blood pressure.
•Blood sugar lowering effect
Some alkaloids contained in chang chun hua such as leurosine, lochnerine, tetrahydroalstonine, vindoline and vindolinine had different blood sugar effect which was slow but persistent.

Clinical Studies
•Malignant tumors
1. VLB and VCR had similar chemical structure, but didn’t have completely same indications of tumors. VLB was mainly used to treat Hodgkin's disease, lymphosarcoma, acute leukemia and chorionepithelioma; and it’s also effective on breast cancer, oophoroma and nephroblastoma, etc.. VLB Injection was 10mg per ampoule. Commonly used dosage in clinic is 0.2mg/kg for intravenous injection, once a week, 60~80mg as a course of treatment. VCR’s effect on Hodgkin’s disease was not as good as VLB, but it had better effect on acute lymphatic and granulocytic leukemia as well as malignant lymphoma, especially on children’s acute leukemia.
2. The clinical study of combined chemotherapy with vinorelbine plus platinum drugs in patients aged over 70 years and with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Objective To investigated the efficacy and toxic effects of combined chemotherapy of vinorelhine ( Vinca alkaloids) plus cisplatin or carboplatin in patients aged over 70 years and with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods One hundred patients with lung cancer aged over 70 years were enrolled in the study. Fifty patients in chemotherapy group were assigned to receive vinorelbine 25 mg/m^2 at the first day and the fifth day plus cisplatin 60-70 mg/m^2 or carboplatin 250 mg/m^2 at the second day. All treatments were repeated every 3 or 4 weeks. Another fifty patients aged over 70 years were taken as control group, not receiving treatment. The primary endpoint was survival. Results Forty-five patients were evaluable for response and the partial remission rate was 35.6% (16/45). One year survival rate was 37.8% and median survival time was 9.75 months in chemotherapy group. The median survival time was 4.0 months for patients in control group. All 50 patients in chemotherapy group were evaluable for toxic side effects. WHO grade HI incidences of leucopoenia, neutropenia and anemia were 38.0%, 52.0% and 2.2%, respectively. Grade IV incidence of neutropenia was 35.5%. WHO grade III incidences of fatigue, constipation and vomit were 22.0%, 8.0 % and 14.8%, respectively. Five patients failed to complete the treatment due to side effects. Conclusions Combined chemotherapy of vinorelbine plus platinum drugs is effective and tolerated in patients aged over 70 years with advanced NSCLC. Even patients with stable clinical effects shows benefit of survival time.
––Meng Qiyi, Liu Zhe, Guo Lili, Xu Liyan, Zhu Yunzhong, Shi Heling, Tang Junfang. Zhong Hua Lao Nian Yi Xue Za Zhi. Issue 3, 2009, Pages 196-198.
•Hypertension
Vinpocetine, 5mg for intravenous injection, tid, 4 weeks as a course of treatment. 30 cases of hypertension with cerebral arteriosclersis and cerebral thrombosis were treated with this method, 93% cases had improved symptoms, and the markedly effective rate was 25%. The blood viscosity lowered significantly.
•Nephrotic syndrome
VCR, 1.4mg/m2 diluted with 20ml physiological saline solution was used for slow intravenous injection, once a week, 10 times as a course of treatment. Deltacortisone 1.5~2.0mg/kg.day, taken in 2~3 times orally was also applied. 27 cases out of 30 treated cases of nephritic syndrome were completely relieved. 
•Thrombopenic purpura
VCR combined with Deltacortisone was used to treat 11 cases of primary thrombopenic purpura. Method: First day on the First week, VCR 1mg mixed with 500 ml physiological saline solution for 8 hours intravenous drip, once a week, for 4 consecutive weeks; Deltacortisone 40mg, orally, for consecutive 4 weeks. Results: 7 cases were markedly effective and 4 effective.
•Bullous skin diseases
VCR 1mg diluted in 10ml physiological saline solution for intravenous injection, once a week, 4~6 times as a course of treatment. Oral administration of deltacortisone at the dosage of 30~88mg daily was accompanied. 6 cases of bullous skin diseases were treated with this method, and the effect was fast with short course of treatment and minor toxic effects.

Cao Bei Mu –– Iphigenia indica

Pinyin: Cao Bei Mu

Alias: Li Jiang Shan Ci Gu, Yi Pi Jian

Latin: Bulbus Iphigeniae Indicae

Introduction
cao bei mu is the bulb of Iphigenia indica Kunth et Benth (Fam. Liliaceae). It’s collected in summer and autumn, washed clean and dried in the sun.

Western medical
The herb can used in the treatment of bronchitis, asthma, skin infection, scrofula, snake bite etc.. It’s also used for cancer of the breast, thyroid, skin, cervix, nasopharynx and esophagus, and lymphosarcoma.

Eastern medical
Pattern: Stops cough, relieves asthma, softens hard masses, disperses lumps, removes toxin, dissolves swelling, alleviates pain, anti tumor.
Properties: Bitter, warm, toxic.
Channels entered: Lung and Liver.

Chemical constituents
The herb contains colchicines and colchiceinamide, etc..

Pharmacological actions
•Anti-tumor effect
Colchicines had quite strong anticancer effect, it could inhibit the karyokinesis of karyon, its derivatives exerted an inhibiting effect on vedous kinds of sarcoma and parenchymatous liver cancer in experimental animals. It served as an inhibitor in the intermediate stage of cellular mitosis

Clinical Studies
•Skin cancer
cao bei mu powder 2g, 0.5g each time, 4 times daily. 40~50g totally as one course of treatment.
•Breast cancer
Colchiceinamide injection, 10mg~20mg mixed into glucose for intravenous drip, once daily, 250~300mg totally as once course of treatment, for some individuals the total amount could be 400~450mg. The effective rate was 86.1%.
•Leukaemia
Colchicines 5mg, once daily, after 3~4 days, the dosage was increased to 7.5~10mg till WBC was 30000 when the dosage was reduced to 1~4mg. The method could completely relieve the symptoms. It’s effective for chronic granulocyte leukaemia.
• Adenocarcinoma of pancreas
cao bei mu 6g, artificial niu huang, 12g, ye ju hua 60g, etc.. were grounded into fine powder. 3g, tid. The method could relieve the symptoms and lengthen the survival time.


Except those noted, all materials are from: Wang Benxiang. Modern pharmacology for material medica. Tianjin: Tianjin Science & Technology Press, 1999

Except those noted, all materials are from: Wang Benxiang. Modern pharmacology for material medica. Tianjin: Tianjin Science & Technology Press, 1999

Except those noted, all materials come from: http://www.zysj.com.cn/zhongyaocai/yaocai_l/lijiangshancigu.html and http://bufotanine.com/professional/pic_library/ps.php?id=0231.