Oncology: Herb Research for Cancer

Pathway-focused bioassays and transcriptome analysis contribute to a better activity monitoring of complex herbal remedies.
Immune Enhancing Herbs
Chinese Cancer Herb Ba Ji Tian-Radix Morindae Officinalis
Chinese Cancer Herb Bai Zhu — Rhizome Atractylodes macrocephala
Chinese Cancer Herb Ci Wu Jia — Rhizoma et radix Acanthopanax sentocosus (Siberian Ginseng)
Chinese Cancer Herb Da Qing Ye- Folium Isatis indigotica
Chinese Cancer Herb Dang Gui — Radix Angelica sinensis
Chinese Cancer Herb Dang Shen — Radix Codonopsis pilosula
Chinese Cancer Herb Dong Chong Xia Cao — Cordyceps sienesis
Chinese Cancer Herb Du Zhong- Cortex Eucommia
Chinese Cancer Herb E Jiao- Gelatinum Corii
Chinese Cancer Herb Fu Ling – Sclerotium Poria cocos
Chinese Cancer Herb Gou Qi Zi — Fruit Lycium chinensis
Chinese Cancer Herb He Shou Wu- Radix Polygoni
Chinese Cancer Herb Hong Dou Shan- Folium Taxus chinensis
Chinese Cancer Herb Huang Jing- Rhizoma Polygonati
Chinese Cancer Herb Huang Qi — Radix Astragalus membranaceus
Chinese Cancer Herb Jiao Gu Lan — Radix Gynostemma pentaphyllum
Chinese Cancer Herb Jin Ci Tau — Herb Hypericum triquetrifolium
Chinese Cancer Herb Jin Yin Hua-– Flos Lonicerae
Chinese Cancer Herb Ling Zhi — Sporophore Ganoderma lucidum
Chinese Cancer Herb Mai Men Dong- Radix Ophiopogon japonicus
Chinese Cancer Herb Nu Zhen Zi — Fruit Ligustrum iucidum
Chinese Cancer Herb Ren Shen — Radix Panax Ginseng
Sang Shen- Fructus Mori
Chinese Cancer Herb Shan Zhu Yu — Fructus Corni
Chinese Cancer Herb She Mei- Herb Duchesnea indica
Chinese Cancer Herb Shu Di Huang — Radix Rehmannia Glutinosa
Chinese Cancer Herb Tai Zi Shen — Radix Pseudostellariae
Chinese Cancer Herb Yin Yang Huo — Herba Epimedium sagittatum
Anti Malignancy Herbs
Chinese Cancer Herb Ba Ji Tian-Radix Morindae Officinalis (None)
Chinese Cancer Herb Ba Yue Zha — Akebia trifoliata (None)
Bai Bu — Root Stemona sessilifolia (None)
Chinese Cancer Herb Bai Hua She She Cao — Herb Hedyotis diffusa
Chinese Cancer Herb Bai Jiang Cao — Herba et Radix Patriniae
Chinese Cancer Herb Bai Mao Gen — Rhizoma Imperatae (None)
Chinese Cancer Herb Bai Qu Cai — Herba Chelidonii
Chinese Cancer Herb Bai Shao — Radix Paeonia
Chinese Cancer Herb Bai Tou Wen — Radix Pulsatillae (None)
Chinese Cancer Herb Bai Ying — Herba Solani lyrati
Chinese Cancer Herb Bai Zhu — Rhizome Atractylodes macrocephala
Chinese Cancer Herb Ban Bian Lian- Herba Lobeliae Chinensis
Chinese Cancer Herb Ban Mao — Mylabris
Chinese Cancer Herb Ban Xia — Rhizoma Pinellia
Chinese Cancer Herb Ban Zhi Lian — Herb Scutellaria barbata
Chinese Cancer Herb Bei Sha Shen — Radix Glehniae
Chinese Cancer Herb Bi Li Guo —Folium / Fructus Ficus Pumila


Pathway-focused bioassays and transcriptome analysis contribute to a better activity monitoring of complex herbal remedies.

Klein A, Wrulich OA, Jenny M, et al. BMC Genomics. 2013 Feb 27;14:133. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-133.

Transcriptome analysis in combination with pathway-focused bioassays is suggested to be a helpful approach for gaining deeper insights into the complex mechanisms of action of herbal multicomponent preparations in living cells. The polyherbalism based concept of Tibetan and Ayurvedic medicine considers therapeutic efficacy through multi-target effects. A polyherbal Indo-Tibetan preparation, Padma 28 (contains 20 different powdered plants including Aegle sepiar fructus, Amomi fructus, Aquilegiae vulgaris herba, Calendulae flos cum calyce, Cardamomi fructus, Caryophylli flos, Costi amari radix, Kaempferiae galangae rhizome, Lactucae sativae folium, Lichen islandicus, Liquiritiae radix, Meliae tousend fructus, Myrobalani fructus sine semine, Plantaginis lanceolatae folium, Polygoni avicularis herba, Potentillae aureae herba, Santali rubri lignum, Sidae cordifoliae herba, Valerianae radix and Aconiti tuber as well as D-Camphora and Calcii sulfas hemihydricus), approved by the Swiss drug authorities (Swissmedic Nr. 58436), was applied to a more detailed dissection of mechanism of action in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Cell-free and cell-based assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Genome-wide expression profiling was done by applying Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Affymetrix arrays. Pathway- and network-oriented analysis elucidated the affected biological processes. The results were validated using reporter gene assays and quantitative real-time PCR.

To reveal the direct radical scavenging effects of the ethanolic extract of the Indo-Tibetan polyherbal remedy Padma 28, an in vitro oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) was employed, which resulted in a peroxyl-radical scavenging activity of 2006 ± 235 μmol TE/g. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of Padma 28 was analysed in living HepG2 cells, by measuring its scavenging potential against radical induced ROS. This formulation showed a considerable antioxidant capacity by significantly reducing ROS levels in a dose-dependent manner.Integrated transcriptome analysis revealed a major influence on phase I and phase II detoxification and the oxidative stress response. Selected target genes, such as heme oxygenase 1, were validated in qPCR experiments. Network analysis showed 18 interrelated networks involved in important biological functions such as drug and bio-molecule metabolism, molecular transport and cellular communication. Some molecules are part of signaling cascades that are active during development and morphogenesis or are involved in pathological conditions and inflammatory response.

The identified molecular targets and pathways suggest several mechanisms that underlie the biological activity of the preparation. Although extrapolation of these findings to the in vivo situation is not possible, the results obtained might be the basis for further investigations and new hypotheses to be tested. This study demonstrates the potential of the combination of focused and unbiased research strategies in the mode of action analysis of multicomponent herbal mixtures.

In the present study, we show that the Indo-Tibetan polyherbal remedy Padma 28 displays both direct and indirect antioxidant capacities and exerts a variety of actions including the transcriptional activation of cytoprotective genes. The identification of a number of potential key molecules and signaling cascades that are differentially regulated upon cell treatment in vitro, supports the hypothesis for a pleiotropic mode of action. The results agree with several previous studies that described antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic properties using different experimental approaches.

The combination of molecular and pathway-based bioassays with unbiased transcriptome analysis has proved to be a valuable strategy in multicomponent activity assessment. Nevertheless, the selection of an appropriate experimental design, the cellular model system and the verification of findings in an iterative manner is necessary to generate valuable results.

Ba Ji Tian-Radix Morindae Officinalis
Mixed ingredients of oligosaccharides contained in ba ji tian at the dosage of 12.5mg/kg~50mg/kg can obviously promote the proliferation of T lymphocyte in the thymus gland of mice.

Bai Zhu — Rhizome Atractylodes macrocephala
Intragastric administration of the decoction of A. macrocephala for one month increased the body weight and swimming endurance of mice.
It was reported that the herb could increase the phagocytic function of the reticuloendothelial system. It was able to increase leukocytes in patients with leukopaenia.
The herb also increased the lymphocyte transformation rate, promoting cellular immunity and markedly increasing serum IgG.

Ci Wu Jia — Rhizoma et radix Acanthopanax sentocosus (Siberian Ginseng)
Similar to Ren Shen but with CNS sedating activity
Has anti-hypoxia activity
Stimulates the HPA - Cortisol system, resulting in anti-inflammatory affects.
Lowers BP and Blood sugar levels
Four polysaccharides with molecular weights of 15,000 to 200,000 are immunostimulating agents

Da Qing Ye- Folium Isatis indigotica
Decoction of Da Qing Ye can increase the phagocytosis of WBC over bacteria, and phagocytic index as well.

Dang Gui — Radix Angelica sinensis
A.sinensis and ferulic acid potentiated the phagocytic activity of macrophages when given to mice.
Clinical studies
An intense review of Chinese Medical literature shows no evidence of either substantial hormone neither content nor hormonal activity in humans or animals when given this herb. The basis for some of its activity is its strong effect of relaxing the muscles, esp.. uterine muscles. The herb is not reported to have oestrogenic activity and is not contraindicated during pregnancy. A. Sinensis is a nearly universal ingredient for pregnancy disorders and approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health for inclusion in pregnancy formulations

Dang Shen — Radix Codonopsis pilosula
1. Stimulating activity of Chinese medicinal herbs on human lymphocytes in vitro.
The effects of eight kinds of Chinese medicinal herbs (CMH) on human lymphocytes were studied in vitro. The extract of Cinnamomum cassia presl markedly stimulated human lymphocytes to proliferate. Codonopsis pilosula, Oldenlandia diffusa and Rhizoma typhonii weakly stimulated. These extracts enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity, but failed to enhance natural killer (NK)-cell activity. The extracts of these CMHs have stimulatory effect on immunoglobulin (Ig) production by B-cells and interleukin(IL)-1 production by monocytes. These activities of Cinnamomum cassia presl extract are associated with glycoproteins, whose molecular weight was about 100 KDa. These results suggest that CMH extracts have a stimulating activity on human lymphocytes and these abilities could be used clinically for the treatment of diseases such as cancer.
-Shan BE, Yoshida Y, Sugiura T, Yamashita U. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1999 Mar;21(3):149-59.

2. Phagocytic actions
Daily intragastric administration of the C. pilosulae decoction 0.25g for 1-2 weeks accelerated the clearance of the intravenously injected 131I-plasma protein colloidal particles from the blood, suggesting an enhancement of reticuloendothelial phagocytosis. Both in vitro and in vivo studies proved that Linctus of C pilosulae markedly promoted the phagocytic function of the peritoneal macrophages on mice.

Dong Chong Xia Cao — Cordyceps sinensis
Generally speaking, most reports believe that Cordyceps can improve non-specific immunity, and the main dispute lies in its influences over the specific immunity.
1. Influences over the spleen weight, thymus gland weight and the function of reticuloendothelial system
Most reports showed that Cordyceps preparation could increase the spleen weight (spleen index) of animals, and improve the function of reticuloendothelial system. Cui Zhigui reported that through intraperitoneal or subcutaneous injection, preparations of Cordyceps or cultured Cordyceps could both accelerate the clearance speed of the colloid carbon granule in the blood in mice, increase the phagocytosis of the macrophages in the abdominal cavity, and increase the weight of the liver and spleen as well. Liu Gengtao et al. reported that injection of 1~3g/kg 60% alcohol extract of Tibet Cordyceps could increase the spleen weight, synthesis of the spleen RNA and protein, and the proliferation of lymphocytes in the spleen; it could also antagonize the spleen weight loss caused by cyclophosphane and hydro prednisone. Further research showed that only extracts of Cordyceps stroma could increase the spleen weight, the worm body showed no effects. After mice were injected with 5~10g/kg CsB subcutaneously for 5 days in succession, it was found that the spleen weight of the animals increased, liver weight showed no change, and the thymus gland weight tended to decrease.
2. Influences over cellular immunity and humoral immunity
Some researchers believe that Cordyceps has immunological enhancement. Chen Guoqiang et al. reported that intraperitoneal injection of alcohol extract could increase the quantities of accessory T cell in peripheral blood and spleen cells in mice, but it had no influence over the quantities of inhibitory T cell. Kuang Yande reported that water extract of Cordyceps at the concentration of 5~10mg/ml had mild stimulating function on the proliferation of the thymus gland and spleen cells, and it would directly promote the proliferation of the accessory T cell; it showed no promoting function on the interleukin-2 (IL-2) generating of the spleen cells, but it could induce its expression of IL-2 receptor. Xu Renhe et al. reported that alcohol extract of Cordyceps could improve the activities of the natural kill cells in both human and mouse blood, and partially antagonize the inhibitory function of cyclophosphane on this kind of cell. Huang Heng et al. reported that Cordyceps extract could promote delayed allergic reaction while it could inhibit the generation of serum hemolysin in mice, so he believed that it could promote the cellular immunity but inhibit the humoral immunity. Zang Qizhong reported that polysaccharide from Cordyceps could promote the phagocytosis of the reticuloendothelial system and macrophages, accelerate the proliferation of lymphocytes, antagonize the spleen and thymus gland weight loss caused by cyclophosphane and cortogen, and increase the serum IgG in the blood of mice.
Other reports held that Cordyceps mainly showed inhibitory function over the specific immunity. Huang Mingming reported that either water extract or alcohol extract of the mycelia of Paecilomyces Hepiali Chen could significantly inhibit the lymphocyte transformation and rosette formation rate; by inhibiting the rejection reaction, the survival time of the skin graft or heart implant behind the ear of mice could be prolonged. Further research showed that its mechanism of immunosuppression might be because that it could strengthen the inhibitory T cell. Zhu Xiyuan et al. reported that water extract of Cordyceps could inhibit the phagocytic function of peripheral WBC in mice, and the reaction of the lymph proliferation in the spleen and mixed lymphocyte reaction induced by Con A.
Our experiments also proved that CsB had inhibitory function over both cellular immunity and humoral immunity. In vivo, it could inhibit the delayed allergic reaction (with ear swelling of the mice as the index) and the generation of serum serotonin in mice induced by DNFB; inhibit the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes in mice induced by Con A, but at the minimal dose, it had slight stimulating function over spleen lymphocytes. In addition, Zhu Xihuan and Chen Yanping et al. also reported that Cordyceps preparation could suppress cellular immunity.
Accordingly, the influence of Cordyceps over immunity, especially on specific immunity is rather complicated and needs further research.
Additionally, CsB had slight anti-inflammatory function; it could inhibit the ear edema reaction of mice induced by croton oil.

Du Zhong- Cortex Eucommia
Daily intragastric administration of the decoction to mice at the dose of 6g/kg for 5 days enhanced the phagocytosis of carbon. The carbon clearance of the decoction was about the same as that of intragastric administration of 3g/kg of the roots of Astragalus membranaceus and of Codonopsis pilosula. Intragastric administration of E. ulmoides decoction at 12g/kg significantly increased the phagocytosis of erythrocytes by macrophages compared with that in animals given the roots of Astragalus membranaceus and of Codonopsis pilosula. These results proved that the herb potentiated the immunologic functions of the body.

E Jiao- Gelatinum Corii
E jiao could promote the immune rosette formation cell in the Spleen, antagonize the immunity suppression induced by hydrocortisone, improve the phagocytic function of monocytes, and elevate the NK cell activity in normal mice and mice administrated with hydrocortisone.

Fu Ling – Sclerotium Poria cocos
Immuno-stimulating effect
Another compound from P. cocos is poriatin, which has immunostimulating activities, antiviral activities and the ability to activate peritoneal macrophages and increase pinocytosis and phagocytosis. It can also improve the production of colony stimulating activity by macrophages, lymphocytes and other cells, shortening the period of leukocytopenia and enhance lysosomal enzyme activity “with protein and RNA synthesis”. Poriatin is especially interesting in that it has also demonstrated immunosuppressive activity and is an aldosterone antagonist.

Gou Qi Zi — Fruit Lycium chinensis
gou qi can increase the function of non-specific immunity; it can obviously increase the phagocytic ability of reticulo-endothelial system in mice, the phagocytosis percentage and index of phagocytes, serum lysozyme activity and valence of antibody, etc..
Combined with cyclophosphamide, gou qi showed better inhibitory effect on tumour weight of W256 than that of single application of cyclophosphamide, in addition, it could relieve leukopenia caused by cyclophosphamide. gou qi had an inhibitory rate of 42% on S180 in mice, and it didn’t show obvious inhibitory effect on other transplanted tumour. Single employment of gou qi didn’t show obvious anticancer effect. In vitro, it showed inhibitory effect on cultured strain of human cervical cancer cell JTC-26.

He Shou Wu- Radix Polygoni
He Shou Wu could increase the weight and delay the atrophy of the thymus gland, elevate the phagocytic function of celiac phagocytes in mice and increase non-specific immunity, increase the function of T and B-lymphocytes, and enhance specific immunity.

Hong Dou Shan- Folium Taxus chinensis
Paclitaxel could regulate body immune function, and have effect on TNF receptor located on macrophages, and stimulate the release of TNF-a, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-2, IFN-b, which could kill and inhibit tumour cells.

Huang Jing- Rhizoma Polygonati
Huang Jing can improve lymphocyte transformation rate; increase immune function; promote the synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein; lower the plasma content of cAMP and cGMP; increase the survival rate of animals exposed to radiation; accelerate the proliferation of haematopoietic stem cells and restore the haematopoiesis.

Huang Qi — Radix Astragalus membranaceus
1. Immunological actions
The polysaccharides composed of glucose and arabinose extracted from A. membranaceus var. mongholicus were reported to increase the immune response when administered i.p. to mice. Moreover, they also caused an increase in the amount of RNA in the spleen and a decrease in the incorporation of (3H) uridine into RNA. Similar effects on other reticuloendothelial tissues but no effect on thymus, heart, or brain RNA or on DNA metabolism was noted.
The homogeneous fraction of polysaccharides obtained by water extraction, consisting mainly of astragalan II and I, exhibits a wide spectrum of immunological effects on mice. By i.p. administration it increased the weight and cell number of mouse spleen, elevated the response of mouse spleen against sheep red blood cells, and stimulated phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages. The number of activated macrophages in the spleen of the treated animals was also increased. If the polysaccharide fraction was given i.v. or intragastrically, even at higher doses, the phagocytic function of peritoneal macrophages did not change significantly. Astragalan II decreased the alkaline RNase activity in liver and spleen of mice and had a smaller effect on acid RNase but no effect on serum RNase. The polysaccharide fraction also increased hepatic RNase inhibitor activity.
The natural killer cytotoxicity of lymphocyte effector cells was markedly enhanced when treated with partially purified human interferon-os or with extract of A. membranaceus. They stimulated each other: the natural killer cytotoxicity increased five to six fold after treatment of effector cells with both agents.
Saponin astramembrannin I, at a dose of 10 mg/kg-applied i.v., induced accumulation of cAMP in rabbit plasma. The increase in cAMP started after 30 min and reached a maximum in 0.5 4 h after a single injection. Saponin affected DNA biosynthesis in partially hepatectomized mice and increased incorporation of (3H) thymidine into regenerating mouse liver

2. Enhancement of the Immunologic Function
The A. membranaceus decoction given to mice orally at a dose of 0.5 ml daily or on alternate days for 1-2 weeks increased the phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system The phagocytic index was significantly increased even if the rehabilitation of the mouse reticuloendothelial system was disrupted by the injection of carbon particles prior to the administration of A. membranaceus. Concomitant use of rifampicine and G. lucidum Mixture (Radix Astragali, Radix Codonopsis Pilosulae, Ganoderma Lucidum) improved and regulated the suppressed immunologic function of mice. When used with anti-tuberculous drugs, the mixture significantly decreased the mortality rate and prolonged the median survival time of tuberculous mice. These results are significantly better than that achieved with anti-tuberculous drugs alone. G. lucidum Mixture also greatly enhanced the bactericidal function of the spleen It was shown in antiviral studies that either the oral doses or nose drops of the A. membranaceus decoction protected mice from infection of parainfluenza virus type I. Results from 28 experiments using 1299 mice in total showed that the effect of A. membranaceus resembled, by and large, those of the interferon mediator, tilorone, and bronchitis vaccine. Oral administration or nasal spray of this herb offered protection against the common cold in an epidemiological study involving 1000 subjects Though the herb was not itself an interferon inducer, it could promote the production of interferon by the mouse lung against parainfluenza virus type I and Newcastle disease virus In patients susceptible to common cold, administration of this herb for two weeks or two months enhanced the induction of interferon by peripheral white blood cells as compared with the premedication stage. Similar results were demonstrated in studies with mice. The induction of leukocytes to produce interferon in patients could be one of the antiviral mechanisms of A. membranaceus Addition of A. membranaceus to the culture of mouse renal cells increased their production of interferon in that the interferon titer was much higher in the A. membranaceus group than in the control group Two months of oral treatment with this herb in subjects susceptible to common cold greatly increased the levels of SIgA and IgG in the nasal secretion. Moreover, quantitative changes in the SIgA were found correlated with the severity of the common cold Tablets of the dried fluidextract of the whole plant given to 80 normal subjects by mouth greatly increased the IgM and IgE These results indicate that A. membranaceus promotes humoral immunity.
In comparison with the control, addition of the herb decoction to rat renal cell culture, whether before or after a challenge by follicular stomachtitis virus, lowered the viral titer in the treated cells, indicating that A. membranaceus could inhibit the pathogenicity of virus on cell cultures. Further studies revealed that the inhibitory effect of A. membranaceus on viral multiplication is mediated by cells In addition, A. membranaceus enhanced the specific rosette formation of mouse lymphocytes on sheep red blood cells Atrophy of the immune tissues such as the spleen, thymus, and intestinal lymph nodes, as well as Leukopenia, all caused by the immunosuppressant, prednisolone, were antagonised by the polysaccharides of the herb. Concomitant injection of the polysaccharides with the allergen via the same route produced a pronounced adjuvant effect wherein the number of plaque-forming cells was increased.
3. Immuno function - Chronic Leukopenia
In 53 cases treated intramuscularly with A. membranaceus injection (1:1) 2 ml daily for a course of 1-2 weeks, the symptoms were improved and the WBC count increased to 4000-5000/mm3 or higher; 31 cases were followed-up for 1-2 months and 80% were found to have WBC count maintained higher than 4000/mm3.

Jiao Gu Lan — Radix Gynostemma pentaphyllum
1. Contains 82 saponins, which are structurally similar to ginsenosides found in Ren Shen.
Regulates lymphocyte transformation
Regulates DNA polymerase activity
Elevates immune activity of patients
Used experimentally for malignancy

2. Effect of Yin Er, Fu Ling and Jiao Gu Lan on the immunological and free radical-clearing functions in mice
BALB/C mice were administrated orally with Yin Er (10g/kg), Fu Ling (12g/kg) and Jiao Gu Lan saponin (25mg/kg) for 21 days. Yin Er and Fu Ling enhanced spleno-lymphocyte proliferation ?-ANAE positive cell percent of peripheral blood T cell, IL-2 production and hepatic SOD activity and inhibited hepatic MDA production. Jiao Gu Lan saponin increased ?-ANAE positive cell percent of peripheral blood and hepatic SOD activity. The results showed that these herbs could increase cell-mediated immunity, immunological regulation and free radical-clearing function.-Lin Xiaoming, et al. Journal of Beijing Medical University. 1995; 27 (6): 455~457, 473.

3. Immune function restoring function and free radical clearing function of Jiao Gu Lan saponin and its compound in aged mice
BALB/C adult and aged mice were administrated with Jiao Gu Lan saponin and its compound at the dosage of 50, 200, 400mg/kg•Bw for 14 days through gastrogavage. The results showed that Jiao Gu Lan saponin could increase the T lymphocyte ?-ANAE positive rate in the peripheral blood of aged mice, proliferation reaction of spleen lymphocyte and serum hemolysin level; lower the generation of liver MDA. Jiao Gu Lan saponin and its compound could increase the SOD activity in the liver of aged mice. The results indicated that they could improve or restore the immune function of free radical clearing function of aged mice to different degree.
-Lin Xiaoming, et al. Journal of Chinese Gerontics. 1998; 18(12): 364~365.

Jin Ci Tau — Herb Hypericum triquetrifolium
Hypericin and psuedohypericin have been used clinically as antidepressants.
Since 1990 they have been found to have anti-HIV and anti-tumour activity.
Has significant anti-viral activity mediated by potent inhibitory effect on protein kinase C (EFG) signaling pathway.
Significantly increases SOD activity
Inhibits the binding of EFG (epidermal growth factor) to carcinoma cells

Jin Yin Hua-– Flos Lonicerae
The diluted decoction of Flos L. japonica (1:1280) was still able to promote leukocytic phagocytosis. Intraperitoneal injection of the herb to mice also markedly enhanced the phagocytic activity of the inflammatory cells.

Ling Zhi — Sporophore Ganoderma lucidum
Extract of mycelium of bo gai ling zhi could significantly promote the phagocytosis rate of celiac macrophages and activity of lysosome in mice, obviously inhibit DNA synthesis in lymphocytes and T and B lymphocyte transformation induced by ConA and bacillus coli endotoxin. ling zhi polysaccharide had certain immunoenhancing effect.
The polysaccharide component with a branched (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan moiety from G. lucidum (PS-G) has shown evidence of enhancement of immune responses and have eliciting anti-tumour effects. Annexin V staining and MTT assays reveal that PS-G is able to inhibit spontaneous and Fas-induced neutrophil apoptosis, and this effect of PS-G is enhanced by the presence of zVAD (a caspase inhibitor) and GM-CSF. The antiapoptotic effect of PS-G is diminished by the presence of wortmannin and LY294002 (two PI-3K inhibitors), but is not altered by PD98059 (a MEK inhibitor). Western blotting indicates the stimulating effect of PS-G on Akt phosphorylation and its inhibition of procaspase 3 degradation, which occurs in neutrophils undergoing spontaneous apoptosis or triggered death by Fas. Taken together, PS-G elicitation of antiapoptotic effects on neutrophils primarily relies on activation of Akt-regulated signaling pathways.
A fucose-containing glycoprotein fraction, which stimulates spleen cell proliferation and cytokine expression, has been identified from the water-soluble extract of Ganoderma lucidum. Proteomic analysis of mouse spleen cells treated with this glycoprotein fraction showed approximately 50% change of the proteome. Further studies on the activities of this glycoprotein fraction through selective proteolysis and glycosidic cleavage indicate that a fucose containing polysaccharide fraction is responsible for stimulating the expression of cytokines, especially IL-1, IL-2 and INF-gamma.

Mai Men Dong- Radix Ophiopogon japonicus
mai dong contains polysaccharide. In tumour immunotherapy, it showed the effect of promoting thymus and body fluid reaction. It had host-mediated effect, stimulate reticuloendothelial system, increase the specific antigen immune response ability of host to cancer cells.

Nu Zhen Zi — Fruit Ligustrum iucidum
nu zhen zi had no obvious influence over the number of rosette forming cells. Gastrogavage of water decoction of wine-steamed nu zhen zi could increase the humoral immunity of mice. Decoction of nu zhen zi, decoction of steamed nu zhen zi and Er Zhi Wan (made from nu zhen zi and mo han lian / Han Lian Cao) could all increase the non-specific immune function and antagonize the immunosuppression function of sterane. Intraperitoneal injection of nu zhen zi polysaccharide to mice could obviously enhance the immune function. 75% ethanol extract of nu zhen zi could promote the response of lymphocyte to PHA, and promote T lymphocyte.
The experimental results show that Erzhi Pills can markedly increase the weights of immunological organs in mice and antagonize the immunosuppressive action of prednisolone. The diameter of SRID precipitating ring, the hemolytic ability of PFC and the clearance rate of i.v. The pills can increase all charcoal particles in mice. Erzhi Pills also protect mice from CCl4 intoxication. Steamed Ligustrum lucidum has the same action as Erzhi Pills.
Aqueous extracts of Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum augmented the spontaneous [3H]thymidine incorporation in the mononuclear cells (MNC) of 14 normal subjects from 273.0 to 609.3 counts per minute (cpm) and 252.9 to 656.9 cpm respectively. The stimulation indices were 2.4 and 3.1, respectively (p less than 0.001). They also augmented the proliferation of normal subjects' lymphocytes induced by suboptimal concentrations of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) from 5084.6 to 23,398.3 and 221.7 to 24,132.8 cpm, of concanavalin A (con A) from 4046.5 to 15,661.5 and 677.6 to 14,644.6 cpm, and of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) from 4377.9 to 24,405.6 and 322.7 to 11,730.0 cpm, respectively (p less than 0.00). Herb extracts augmented the PHA responses of the MNC from 14 cancer patients significantly (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively). Extracts of L. lucidum also augmented the con A response of patients (p less than 0.05). The augmenting effect of the herbs on the PHA, con A, and PWM responses was dose dependent, and proliferation was inhibited at higher concentrations. The optimal concentration for stimulating the MNC of cancer patients was 100 micrograms/ml, compared to 10 micrograms/ml for the MNC of normal donors. MNC of seven patients depressed the mitogen responses of normal cells in a co-culture system. This was partially abrogated in five by preincubating the patients' cells in herb extracts for 45 min or by irradiation of the patients' cells. These results suggest that the herb extracts contain immunomodulatory components, which may be useful in the immunotherapy of disease.

Ren Shen — Radix Panax Ginseng
Contains 77 saponins of which 8 have anti cancer properties. NOTE: these must be alcohol extracted not water extracted.
Contains substances which are similar to Vitamin E
Contains significant Anti-oxidant compounds
Contains fatty acids, essential oils, amino acids, peptides and polysaccharides.
Clinical studies show benefit for Lung cancer by inhibiting adhesion and invasion of tumour cells due to anti-angiogenesis activity
A shrinking of cancer size and an increase in body weight and survival times was shown in clinical trials for Stomach cancer.

Ren Shen can increase the phagocytosis of reticuloendothelial system; it can increase the lymphocyte transformation rate and g-globin, IgM in healthy human beings. It can increase the activity of NKC and the production of interferon, and obviously increase the antibody in animals stimulated by various antigens as well.

Sang Shen- Fructus Mori
Enhancing immune function
100% sang shen decoction had medium effect of stimulating the lymphocyte transformation.

Shan Zhu Yu — Fructus Corni
Effects on immunity
Experiments with mice showed that shan zhu yu could obviously promote the number increasing of antigen combining cells, obviously inhibit the delayed allergic reaction induced by sheep red cells in mice. shan zhu yu can also lower the spleen index and thymus gland index, and have quite strong inhibitory effect on the auto oxidation of vegetable oil as well.
Jin Gui Shen Qi Wan, a prepared TCM product containing shan zhu yu, can improve the non-specific immunity and humeral immunity, and promote the pre-generation of antibodies.

She Mei- Herb Duchesnea indica
Immune enhancing effect
Fluidextract of she mei had obvious promoting effect on the phagocytosis of macrophages of mice. she mei had obvious anticoagulant effect; it had no protective effect on RBC membrane.

Shu Di Huang — Radix Rehmannia Glutinosa
Immunologic Diseases
Intermittent treatment of 12 cases of rheumatic arthritis and 11 cases of rheumatoid arthritis with the herb decoction produced remarkable therapeutic effects in most patients, evidenced by abatement of joint pain, subsidence of swelling, improvement of joint movement, and normalization of erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The herb also improved the general symptoms of bronchial asthma and urticaria. In a minority of patients, mild edema developed following the medication, a reaction which is similar to that induced by adrenocortical hormones

Tai Zi Shen — Radix Pseudostellariae
Influence over immune function
Water decoction of tai zi shen could obviously stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes.

Yin Yang Huo — Herba Epimedium sagittatum
Immunological actions
E. sagittatum has been shown to regulate the immunological functions. It enhanced the functions of antibody forming cells as well as the excitatory state of the lymphatic cells; it also increased the phagocytic activity of the monocytes and the number of T-cells. The polysaccharide isolated from E. sagittatum was found to accelerate the production of T- suppressor cells of immunized mice and to inhibit the antibody production in recipient mice; icariin, on the other hand attenuated the production of T-suppressor cells and the antibody titer was therefore markedly elevated.
At Bethune Medical University it was found that Epemedii Flavone (EF) exhibits extraordinary augmenting effect on the response of T-cells to mitogen in immunodepressed mice (IDM). The immunopotentiating effect of EF on T-cells appeared three days after its administration and continued to the end of the experiment (6th day). The stimulatory index of lymphocyte transformation in IDM was maintained higher than the index without EF. It was also evident that the immunopotentiating effect of Epemedii Flavone is closely related to the level of cyclic nucleotides, especially the ratio cGMP/cAMP.

Ba Ji Tian-Radix Morindae Officinalis (None)
Administration of Ba Ji tian is associated with an increase in the plasma levels of corticosteroids. It is attributed to its stimulating effect on the pituitary and the adrenal cortex.
Gou Wai Yi Xue Zhong Yao Fen Ce Monograph of Chinese Herbology from Foreign Medicine) 1990;12(6):48

Ba Yue Zha — Akebia trifoliata (None)
Carcinoma of the neck, scrofula contains Glyceryl linolenate 1, Glyceryl linolenate 2 and Glyceryl linolenate 3. Traditional Chinese Medicines; molecular structures, natural sources and applications. J. Zhou et al. Ashgate 1999, 2003


Bai Bu — Root Stemona sessilifolia (None)
Cough due to pulmonary congestion and fluid accumulation.
Xian Dai Zhong Yao Yao Li Xue (Contemporary Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs) ,1997; 1011

Bai Hua She She Cao — Herb Hedyotis diffusa
1. Anti-tumour effects and mechanism of the extracts of Oldenlandia diffusa on multidrug resistance human hepatic cancer cell Bel-7402 in vitro.
The study was to investigate the anti-tumour effects and mechanism of Oldenlandia diffusa on human multidrug resistance hepatic cancer cell Bel-7402 in vitro. Growth inhibition was measured by MTT assay, and the reverse effects on multidrug resistance of Bel-7402 were also determined. Oldenlandia diffusa (OLEN) stimulated murine spleen lymphocytes proliferation was observed by lymphocyte transformation test, which also can screen out the safety dosage range of this herb. The sensitivity of anti-tumour medicine in vitro was observed by clony-formating test. The results showed that growth inhibitory effects in a dose-dependent manner against Bel-7402 with estimated IC50 values of 1.6mg/ml were strongly displayed by using Oldenlandia diffusa through MTT assay and clony-formating test. The results indicated that the extract of OLEN might directly affect energy metabolism of Bel-7402 in vitro, and play an important role in the anti-tumour effect in a dose-dependent manner. The extracts of OLEN can stimulate murine spleen cells to proliferate.
�Liu Yuhe, et al. Chinese Journal of Composite Clinical Hygiene. 2005; 7(4): 3~5.

2. Clinical Observation on treating 40 cases of malignant ascites with intraperitoneal perfusion of Bai Hua She She Cao.
The study was to observe the therapeutic effects intraperitoneal perfusion of Bai Hua She She Cao combining chemotherapy drug cisplatin on malignant ascites. Cisplatin-only treated group was set as the control group. Results: The effective rate of Bai Hua She She Cao + Cisplatin was 60%, Cisplatin-only group was 41.7% (P<0.05). It indicated that intraperitoneal perfusion of Bai Hua She She Cao was one of the effective methods to treat malignant ascites.
�Luo Liying, et al. Modern Tumour Medicine. 2004; 12(2): 147.

3. Anti-tumour effect and protective effect on chemotherapeutic damage of water-soluble extracts from Hedyotis diffusa.
The study prepared water-soluble extracts (H1 and H2) from Hedyotis diffusa and evaluated their anti-tumour property in vivo experiments as well as protective effect on chemotherapeutic damage. The results showed that H1 (125, 62.5mg/kg) and H2 (62.5, 31,25mg/kg) could significantly inhibit the growth of implanted S-180 solid tumours in mice., and the combination of H1, H2 and cyclophosphane could obviously improve the cyclophosphane-induced atrophy of immune organs and injury of haemopoietic system.
�Li Rui, et al. Journal of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2002; 11(2): 54~57.

4. Anticancer activities of Oldenlandia diffusa.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the anticancer activities of a Chinese herb, Oldenlandia diffusa (Bai Hua She She Cao). METHODS: The water extract of the raw herb Oldenlandia diffusa was used in this study. The in vitro anti-proliferative activities of the extract were tested against eight cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. Microscopic examination and DNA ladder analysis were carried out to determine the pro-apoptotic effect of the extract. In vivo studies were carried out to examine the anticancer activities of the extract using C57BL/6j mice bearing B16-F10 lung metastasis. Oldenlandia diffusa extract was given at the dose level of 5 g raw material/kg on Days 3-12 by oral gavage and the extent of lung metastases were examined on Day 14. RESULTS: The extract exhibited a strong antiproliferative activity against all cancer cell lines tested. The concentrations of growth inhibition at 50% (IC(50)) ranged from 7 to 25 mg raw material/ml after 48-hour treatment. The extract had a very limited cytotoxicity (10% inhibition) on the normal pancreatic cells even at the concentration of 50 mg/mL. Apoptosis in B16-F10 cells after treatment with the extract was observed by microscopic examination and DNA ladder assays. Oral administration of the herbal extract effectively reduced B16-F10 cell growth in the lungs of C57Bl/j mice with a 70% reduction in lung metastases (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Oldenlandia diffusa extract effectively inhibited the growth of all the eight cancer cell lines and induced significant increase of apoptosis. The extract exhibited minimum toxic effect on normal pancreatic cells. Furthermore, there was a significant inhibition of lung metastases in the animal model with no noticeable adverse effects. The herb extract could be a potential anticancer agent.
�Gupta S, Zhang D, Yi J, Shao J. J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(1):21-33.

5. Immunomodulatory activity and anti-tumour activity of Oldenlandia diffusa in vitro
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) on lymphocytes and tumour cells in vitro. METHODS: Effects of OD extract (ODE) on proliferation of spleen cells of mice and the phagocytosis of monocytes to tumour cells using 3H incorporation were analysed, and effect on specific activity of natural killer (NK) cells to human and mice's tumour cells was determined using free 51 Cr experiments, effects on B cells' antibody production and cytokine of monocyte production were investigated by ELISA and biological method, the chemical composition of OD was analyzed by chromatography, protease digestion and sugar decomposition (NaIO4) test. RESULTS: ODE could vigorously promote the proliferative activity of spleen cells in mice, specific lethal activity of human and mice's NK cell to tumour cells, B cells' antibody production, monocytes' cytokine production and its phagocytosis to remove the tumour cells. By means of chromatography, protease E digestion and NaIO4 treatment, the result of chemical composition analysis showed that the component of OD was 90 kDa glycoprotein. CONCLUSION: ODE has immuno-modulating activity and anti-tumour activity in vitro through stimulating the immune system to kill or engulf tumour cells, which could be used clinically for immune function modulation and to treat tumour and other diseases.
�Shan BE, Zhang JY, Du XN. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2001 May;21(5):370-4.

6.Oldenlandia diffusa and Scutellaria barbata augment macrophage oxidative burst and inhibit tumour growth.
Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) and Scutellaria barbata (SB) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating liver, lung and rectal tumours. In this study we determined the effects of these phytochemicals on oxidative burst as an indicator of phagocytic function in a murine macrophage cell line J774 using an automated micro-fluorometric assay. A dose-dependent augmentation of oxidative burst was observed with OD as well as SB. The effect of OD and SB on the growth of a murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) was also determined. Balb/c mice were transplanted subcutaneously with 1 x 10(5) Renca cells and were randomized into groups of 10 to receive oral feeding of OD (4 mg/day), SB (4 mg/day), or saline as control. Oral feeding with either OD or SB significantly inhibited the growth of Renca in mice. The data of this study show that OD and SB are capable of enhancing macrophage function in vitro and inhibiting tumour growth in vivo.
�Wong BY, Lau BH, Jia TY, Wan CP. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 1996 Feb;11(1):51-6.

7. A new acylated flavonol glycoside and antioxidant effects of Hedyotis diffusa
A study on the bioactive principles of Hedyotis diffusa Willd., led to the isolation of a new acyl flavonol di-glycoside, which was characterized as kaempferol 3-O[2"-O-(E-6'"-O-feruloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-beta-D-galactop lyranoside by spectral and chemical methods from the methanolic extract. In addition, three known flavonol glycosides and six known iridoid glycosides were also obtained. The above-mentioned glycosides were tested for antioxidant effects on xanthine oxidase inhibition, xanthine-xanthine oxidase cytochrome c and TBA-MDA systems.
�Lu CM, Yang JJ, Wang PY, Lin CC.. Planta Med 2000 May;66(4):374-7.

8. Effects of some Chinese herbal medicine and green tea antagonizing mutagenesis caused by cigarette tar.
Anti-mutagenic effects of some Chinese herbal medicine and green tea antagonizing cigarette tar was studied with unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) test in human peripheral lymphocytes in order to exploit the better use of Chinese herbal resources. Results showed that Scutellaria barbata, Hedyotis diffusa wildi, Xihuangwan, green tea and tea polyphenol all had anti-mutagenic effects,
to some extent. And, 125 g/L of Scutellaria barbata, 125 g/L Hedyotis diffusa wildi, 325 g/L Xihuangwan, 78 g/L green tea and 25 g/L tea polyphenol could inhibit obviously the damage to DNA in lymphocytes caused by the total particle material (TPM) extracted from cigarette tar. If the Chinese herbal medicine and green tea were injected into cigarettes beforehand, extracted TPM (containing herbal medicine and green tea) also could protect DNA in lymphocytes from damage caused by cigarette tar, to even greater extent. This result is basically consistent with other anti-mutagenesis tests.
�Han F, Hu J, Xu H. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1997 Mar;31(2):71-4.

9. bai hua she she cao (6g/ml crude drug) had quite strong inhibitory effect on acute leukemia of lymphocyte type, granulocyte type, monocyte type and chronic granulocytic leukemia in vitro. 0.5~1g crude drug had inhibitory effect on yoshida sarcoma and Ehrlich ascites tumour.

Bai Jiang Cao — Herba et Radix Patriniae
Anti-cancer effect
bai jiang cao could inhibit the growth and development of S180 strain. It had strong inhibitory effect on cancer cells but had no inhibitory effect on normal cells. 500mg/ml of hot water extract of the root of bai jiang cao had an inhibitory rate of 100% on human cervical carcinoma cells.

Bai Mao Gen — Rhizoma Imperatae (None)
No related research.

Bai Qu Cai — Herba Chelidonii
Anti-cancer effect
Ethanol extract of bai qu cai had obvious killing effect on human esophagus carcinoma cell Fca-109 in vitro. Within the concentration range of 1, 5, 10, 20, 30mg/ml, crude drug of bai qu cai had a dose-dependent killing effect on Fca-109. Methanol extract of bai qu cai had obvious anti cancer effect on S180 and ESC in mice.

Bai Shao — Radix Paeonia
1. Paeoniae Radix, a Chinese herbal extract, inhibit hepatoma cells growth by inducing apoptosis in a p53 independent pathway.
Paeoniae Radix (PR) is the root of traditional Chinese Herb named Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, which is commonly used to treat liver diseases in China for centuries. Several earlier studies have indicated that PR has anticancer growth activities, however the mechanism underlying these activities was unclear and remained to be elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the molecular mechanism of the effect of PR on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B. Our results showed that the water-extract of Paeoniae Radix (PRE) had inhibitory effect on the growth of both HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines. The induction of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation appearance, and accumulation of sub-G1 phase of cell cycle profile in PRE treated hepatoma cells evidenced that the cytotoxicity of PRE to the hepatoma cells is through activation of the cell death program, apoptosis. The activation of apoptosis by PRE is independent of the p53 pathway as Hep3B cell is p53-deficient. In addition, the differential gene expression of PRE treated HepG2 was examined by cDNA microarray technology and RT-PCR analysis. We found that the gene expression of BNIP3 was up-regulated while ZK1, RAD23B, and HSPD1 were down-regulated during early apoptosis of the hepatoma cell mediated by PRE. The elucidation of the drug targets of PR on inhibition of tumour cells growth should enable further development of PR for liver cancer therapy.
-Lee SM, Li ML, Tse YC, Leung SC, Lee MM, Tsui SK, Fung KP, Lee CY, Waye MM. Life Sci. 2002 Sep 27;71(19):2267-77.

2. Pharmacotherapeutic effects of kuei-chih-fu-ling-wan (keishi-bukuryo-gan) on human uterine myomas.
Kuei-chih-fu-ling-wan (Keishi-bukuryo-gan; KBG), a traditional Chinese herbal remedy (Gui Zhi Fu Ling Wan) contains five components: bark of Cinnamomum cassia Bl. (Lauraceae), root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (Paeoniaceae), seed of Prunus persica Batsch. or P. persiba Batsch.var.davidiana Maxim. (Rosaceae), carpophores of Poria cocos Wolf. (Polyporaceae), and root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. (Paeoniaceae). This prescription has been frequently used in the treatment of gynecological disorders such as hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea and sterility. We previously reported that KBG might act as a LH-RH antagonist and a weak anti-estrogen on the uterine DNA synthesis in immature rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of KBG on 110 premenopausal patients with uterine myomas. Clinical symptoms of hypermenorrhea and dysmenorrhea were improved in more than 90% of the cases with shrinking of uterine myomas in roughly 60% of the cases.
-Sakamoto S, Yoshino H, Shirahata Y, Shimodairo K, Okamoto R. Am J Chin Med. 1992;20(3-4):313-7.

Bai Tou Wen — Radix Pulsatillae (None)
No related research.

Bai Ying — Herba Solani lyrati
1. bai ying had inhibitory effect on mouse sarcoma S180, uterine cervix cancer 14 and Ehrlich carcinoma cells. Research showed that it could obviously block cells at G2 stage, and the effect was dosage-dependent, but it had no direct injuring effect on cells at M stage.

2. Stage IV stomach cancer
58 cases of stage IV stomach cancer were treated with teng li gen, ye pu tao teng and bai ying. After treatment, 1, 3, 4 and 10-year survival rates were 87.75%, 46.94%, 32.43% and 27.8% respectively, and the average survival time was 40.6 months.

3. Uterine cervix cancer
bai ying, hong zao, dang shen and hong qian cao were used to treat 45 cases of uterine cervix cancer, 23 cases were cured short-term, 4 were markedly effectively, and 6 were effective, the total effective rate was 73.3%.

Bai Zhu — Rhizome Atractylodes macrocephala
1. Shi-quan-da-bu-tang (ten significant tonic decoction), SQT. A potent Chinese biological response modifier in cancer immunotherapy, potentiation and detoxification of anticancer drugs.
Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang (Ten Significant Tonic Decoction), or SQT (Juzentaihoto, TJ-48) is prepared by extracting a mixture of ten medical herbs (Rehmannia glutinosa, Paeonia lactiflora, Liqusticum wallichii, Angelica sinesis, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Poria cocos, Atractylodes macrocephala, and Panax ginseng. Astragalus membranaceus and Cinnamomum cassia) that tone the blood and vital energy, and strengthen health and immunity. This potent and popular prescription has traditionally been used against anemia, anorexia, extreme exhaustion, fatigue, kidney and spleen insufficiency and general weakness, particularly after illness. In order to restore immunity in cancer patients, potentiate the therapeutic effect and ameliorate adverse toxicity of anticancer agents, 116 Chinese herbal formularies (Kampo) have been screened and evaluated. Fifteen compounds were found to have such actions. Among these, SQT was selected as the most effective as a potent biological response modifier. During the last eight years, animal models and clinical studies have revealed that SQT demonstrates extremely low toxicity (LD50 > 15 g/kg op murine), self-regulatory and synergistic actions of its components in immunomodulatory and immunopotentiating effects (by stimulating haemopoietic factors and interleukins production in association with NK cells, etc.), potentiates therapeutic activity in chemotherapy (mitomycin, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil) and radiotherapy, inhibits the recurrence of malignancies, prolongs survival, as well as ameliorate and/or prevents adverse toxicities (GI disturbances such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, haematotoxicity, immunosuppression, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia and nephropathy, etc.) of many anticancer drugs. The application and mechanistic studies of SQT in future development have potential importance in basic and clinical research of the traditional Chinese therapeutic approach of "toning the blood and strengthening Qi (vital energy)" in cancer immunotherapy.
-Zee-Cheng RK. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1992 Nov;14(9):725-36.

2. Cytotoxic activity of sesquiterpenoids from Atractylodes ovata on leukemia cell lines.
The rhizome of Atractylodes ovata (Bai Zhu in Chinese) is a widely used traditional Chinese herb in Taiwan as a tonic agent. In this paper, four sesquiterpenoids, namely atractylon, and atractylenolides I, II, and III, were isolated from the n-hexane extract of A. ovata and were evaluated for cytotoxic effects in vitro. Atractylon significantly inhibited the growth of human leukemia cell line HL-60 and mouse leukemia cell line P-388, and showed low cytotoxicity against primary cultures of normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells at 15 microg/ml for 12 h. Atractylon had a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on the two tumour cell lines. In accordance with DNA fragment increases and PARP protein decreases, atractylon at 15 microg/ml for 6 h induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Moreover, atractylon inhibited the viability of P-388 cells and induced apoptosis after 15 microg/ml treatment for 12 h in an in vitro assay. However, atractylenolide I at 30 microg/ml for 12 h also induced apoptosis in HL-60 and P-388 cells, but atractylenolides II and III showed no significant inhibition effects on tumour cell growth. As the above results suggested, atractylon and atractylenolide I were the major cytotoxic principal constituents of A. ovata on leukemia cell lines.
-Wang CC, Chen LG, Yang LL. Planta Med. 2002 Mar;68(3):204-8.

3. The neutral fraction of the volatile oil of Bai Zhu was proved in vitro to have a significant inhibitory action on esophageal carcinoma cells. Detachment of all the carcinoma cells was observed within 24 hours at the concentration of 10 µ/ml and of most carcinoma cells at 5µ/ml. The remaining cells showed shrunken nuclei, inconspicuous nuclei and multiple vacuoles in the cytoplasm. Intraperitoneal injection of the volatile oil at the dose of 50-100 mg/kg also significantly inhibited Erhlich ascites carcinoma.

Ban Bian Lian- Herba Lobeliae Chinensis
1. Liver cancer
ban bian lian, xia ku cao, bai hua she she cao, ban zhi lian, dan shen, xue jian chou of equal quantity were made into injections, 2 ml per bottle which contained 4g crude drug. Acu-injection to Yang Ling Quan (GB34, an acupoint on the leg) was applied daily or every other day. After the treatment, the survival time varied from 3 months to over 8 years. The survival rates 1, 3, 5 years after treatment were 67.9%, 28.6%, and 7.1% respectively.

Ban Mao — Mylabris
Cantharidin had dosage-independent inhibitory effect on liver cancer of ascitic type in mice. It could prolong the survival time of mice with ARS of ascitic type. Derivatives of cantharidin all had significant anti-tumour effect.

Ban Xia — Rhizoma Pinellia
1. Antitumour effect
PTA(exogenous agglutinin) isolated from the fresh ban xia bulbs could agglutinate human liver tumour cell, Ehrlich carcinoma and ascitic type of liver cell. Experiments showed that the polysaccharide ingredients in ban xia PMN also had anti-tumour effects.

2. 32 cases of postoperative oestrogenic sarcoma treated by chemotherapy combined with Chinese medicinal herbs
32 cases of postoperative oestrogenic sarcoma treated by chemotherapy combined with Chinese medicinal herbs were compared with 26 similar cases as control group. The drugs used in chemotherapy consisted of two regimens, DDP and high-dose MTX plus VCR. The results showed that the side effects of chemotherapy in control group were consistent with literatures; while the group treated with Chinese medicinal herbs suffered less toxic effects, the difference between two groups was statistically significant. The medicinal herbs used to reduce the side effects induced by DDP was Pinellia ternata, Amomum cardamomum, Bambusa textilis, Citrus reticulata etc.; while the herbs used to alleviate the adverse effects of high-dose MTX plus VCR was Gypsum, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Rehmannia glutinosa, Ophiopogon japonicus, Scrophularia ningpoensis, etc.
-Liu JQ, Wu DW. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1993 Mar;13(3):150-2, 132.

3. Clinical studies
Water-soluble extracts from ban xia were made into tablets for oral administration, each tablet was equal to 10g crude drug, 2~3 tablets, tid, after meals. 247 cases of cervical carcinoma at different stages were treated with this method for over 2 months’ course of treatment, and 63 cases were short-term cured, 84 markedly effective, 44 improved, the total effective rate was 77.3%. And it had an effective rate of 96.7% in patients at stage I, 74.7% in stage II, and 74.2% in stage III. Peeled fresh ban xia was made into pills after being smashed into paste, 2 g each time, 3~4 times daily. The pill was put under the tongue root and swallowed to treat 30 cases of obstruction in esophagus and cardia cancer. In the 25 patients of obstruction due to esophagus cancer, 9 were markedly effective, 12 improved; among 5 patients of cardia cancer, 2 were markedly effective. The administration was usually no more than 30 days.
sheng ban xia was decocted in water for over 15 minutes, modification was made according to different accompanying symptoms. 1 dose every other day, for consecutive 20 doses. Among treated 91 cases of thyroid tumour, 48 were cured, and 15 improved.

Ban Zhi Lian — Herb Scutellaria barbata
1. Oldenlandia diffusa and Scutellaria barbata augment macrophage oxidative burst and inhibit tumour growth.
Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) and Scutellaria barbata (SB) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating liver, lung and rectal tumours. In this study we determined the effects of these phytochemicals on oxidative burst as an indicator of phagocytic function in a murine macrophage cell line J774 using an automated micro-fluorometric assay. A dose-dependent augmentation of oxidative burst was observed with OD as well as SB. The effect of OD and SB on the growth of a murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) was also determined. Balb/c mice were transplanted subcutaneously with 1´10(5) Renca cells and were randomized into groups of 10 to receive oral feeding of OD (4 mg/day), SB (4 mg/day), or saline as control. Oral feeding with either OD or SB significantly inhibited the growth of Renca in mice. The data of this study show that OD and SB are capable of enhancing macrophage function in vitro and inhibiting tumour growth in vivo.
-Wong BY, Lau BH, Jia TY, Wan CP. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 1996 Feb;11(1):51-6.

2. Chinese medicinal herbs modulate mutagenesis, DNA binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1.
Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) and Scutellaria barbata (SB) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating liver, lung and rectal tumours while Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Ligustrum lucidum (LL) are often used as an adjunct in cancer therapy. In this study, we determined the effects of aqueous extracts of these four herbs on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced mutagenesis using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 as the bacterial tester strain and rat liver 9000 x g supernatant as the activation system. The effects of these herbs on [3H]AFB1 binding to calf-thymus DNA were assessed. Organosoluble and water-soluble metabolites of AFB1 were extracted and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mutagenesis assays revealed that all of these herbs produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of histidine-independent revertant (His+) colonies induced by AFB1. At a concentration of 1.5 mg/plate, SB and OD in combination exhibited an additive effect. The trend of inhibition of these four herbs on AFB1-induced mutagenesis was: SB greater than LL greater than AM. LL, OD and SB significantly inhibited AFB1 binding to DNA, reduced AFB1-DNA adduct formation, and also significantly decreased the formation of organosoluble metabolites of AFB1. Our data suggest that these Chinese medicinal herbs possess cancer chemopreventive properties.
-Wong BY, Lau BH, Tadi PP, Teel RW. Mutat Res 1992 Jun 1;279(3):209-16.

3. ban zhi lian had very slightly inhibitory effect on the blood cells of acute granulocytic leukemia.

4. Oesophagus cancer
Decoction of 50g ban zhi lian was used as tea for daily drink, this method had effects on patients with oesophagus cancer to a certain effect.

Bei Sha Shen — Radix Glehniae
1. Antiproliferative constituents in Umbelliferae plants II. Screening for polyacetylenes in some Umbelliferae plants, and isolation of panaxynol and falcarindiol from the root of Heracleum moellendorffii.
Methanol extracts of 36 samples of 21 Umbelliferae plants were screened for polyacetylenic compounds using the ELISA for panaxytriol, and their antiproliferative activity was checked by MTT assay using the tumour cell lines MK-1, HeLa and B16F10. The presence of antiproliferative polyacetylenes was suggested in Angelica acutiloba (fruit), Anethum graveolens (root), Bupleurum rotundifolium (fruit), Carum carvi (fruit and root), Coriandrum sativum (fruit), Cryptotaenia japonica (leaf), Glehnia littoralis (fruit), Heracleum moellendorffii (root) and Torilis japonica (fruit). Panaxynol and falcarindiol were successfully isolated from the root of Heracleum moellendorffii as antiproliferative polyacetylenes.
-Nakano Y, Matsunaga H, Saita T, Mori M, Katano M, Okabe H. Biol Pharm Bull. 1998 Mar;21(3):257-61.

2. Effects of 24 Chinese medicinal herbs on nucleic acid, protein and cell cycle of human lung adenocarcinoma cell
Using flow cytometry the authors analysed the effect of 24 Chinese medicinal herbs (CMH) in compound recipe on proliferation index (PI), DNA index, protein index and ratio of various phases in cell cycle of human lung adenocarcinoma cell (SPC-A-1), The PI were more than 20%, in 4 CMH, while 3 CMH such as Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Glehnia littoralis, Panax Ginseng, could strengthen the body resistance. That suggested using CMH of strengthening body resistance not only served as conventional tonic but also as tumour cell inhibitor. Meanwhile the action point of 24 CMH on cell cycle was different. Therefore according to these results a new recombined Chinese recipe would be more effectively used for clinical practice.
-Han MQ, Liu JX, Gao H. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Mar;15(3):147-9.

3. Mutation-inhibiting effect
0.5g/ml immersion fluid of bei sha shen showed quite strong mutation-inhibiting effect when added into in vitro cultured mammalian cells.

Bi Li Guo —Folium / Fructus Ficus Pumila
Extract of bi li guo and its ingredient b- sitosterol had certain anti-tumour